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Create Tetris Game using HTML and JavaScript [with demo]

Internship at OpenGenus

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Table of Contents:

  1. Introduction
  2. Setting Up the Game Canvas
  3. Generating Tetrominos
  4. Controlling the Tetrominos
  5. Validating the Tetrominos
  6. Handling Linear Clears
  7. Game Over and Restart
  8. Adding Everything Up
  9. Conclusion

Introduction:

Tetris, the classic puzzle game, has captivated players for decades with its simple yet addictive gameplay. What if you could create your own version of Tetris using JavaScript?

In this article at OpenGenus, we'll explore a basic implementation of Tetris using JavaScript and HTML5 canvas. By dissecting the provided code, we'll understand the key components and logic behind the game, empowering you to customize and enhance it according to your own creative vision.

Tetris is a very simple game. You will recieve one piece for you to control until it collides with the bottom or another piece. you can only move the pieces that is given to you left,right or rotate it; your game is over if your pieces reach the top of the screen; and you can only remove pieces from the screen by filling all the blank space in a line. We will implement those basic functions in this tutorial.

Setting Up the Game Canvas:

The foundation of our Tetris game lies within the HTML5 canvas element. The provided code includes a canvas with a specific width and height, which can be adjusted to fit your preferences. The canvas serves as the visual representation of the game, where the Tetriminos will be displayed and manipulated.

<head>
  <title>Basic Tetris HTML Game</title>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <style>
  html, body {
    height: 100%;
    margin: 0;
  }

  body {
    background: black;
    display: flex;
    align-items: center;
    justify-content: center;
  }

  canvas {
    border: 1px solid white;
  }
  </style>
</head>
<body>

<canvas width="320" height="640" id="game"></canvas>

Generating Tetrominos:

Tetrominos are the familiar shapes that players must arrange to form complete rows. In our implementation, the Tetrominos are represented using a 2D matrix, with each cell indicating whether it is occupied by a part of the shape. The code defines seven different Tetrominos, each with its own shape and corresponding color.

const tetrominos = {
  'I': [
    [0,0,0,0],
    [1,1,1,1],
    [0,0,0,0],
    [0,0,0,0]
  ],
  'J': [
    [1,0,0],
    [1,1,1],
    [0,0,0],
  ],
  'L': [
    [0,0,1],
    [1,1,1],
    [0,0,0],
  ],
  'O': [
    [1,1],
    [1,1],
  ],
  'S': [
    [0,1,1],
    [1,1,0],
    [0,0,0],
  ],
  'Z': [
    [1,1,0],
    [0,1,1],
    [0,0,0],
  ],
  'T': [
    [0,1,0],
    [1,1,1],
    [0,0,0],
  ]
};

// color of each tetromino
const colors = {
  'I': 'cyan',
  'O': 'yellow',
  'T': 'purple',
  'S': 'green',
  'Z': 'red',
  'J': 'blue',
  'L': 'orange'
};

To create the sequence of Tetrominos, the game uses a random number generator and an array to store the upcoming Tetrominos. When a new Tetromino is needed, the generator selects one from the sequence array. This ensures that the game provides a variety of Tetrominos in a random order.

Controlling the Tetrominos:

User input is crucial for controlling the movement of the Tetrominos. The code attaches event listeners to capture keyboard input, enabling the player to move and rotate the Tetrominos. The left and right arrow keys move the Tetromino horizontally, while the up arrow key rotates it clockwise. The down arrow key allows the player to drop the Tetromino faster.

document.addEventListener('keydown', function(e) {
  if (gameOver) return;

  // left and right arrow keys (move)
  if (e.which === 37 || e.which === 39) {
    const col = e.which === 37
      ? tetromino.col - 1
      : tetromino.col + 1;

    if (isValidMove(tetromino.matrix, tetromino.row, col)) {
      tetromino.col = col;
    }
  }

  // up arrow key (rotate)
  if (e.which === 38) {
    const matrix = rotate(tetromino.matrix);
    if (isValidMove(matrix, tetromino.row, tetromino.col)) {
      tetromino.matrix = matrix;
    }
  }

  // down arrow key (drop)
  if(e.which === 40) {
    const row = tetromino.row + 1;

    if (!isValidMove(tetromino.matrix, row, tetromino.col)) {
      tetromino.row = row - 1;

      placeTetromino();
      return;
    }

    tetromino.row = row;
  }
});

Validating Tetromino Placement:

To ensure that the Tetrominos are placed correctly within the game grid, the code includes functions for checking the validity of their position. These functions verify whether the Tetromino will collide with the game boundaries or with previously placed Tetrominos. By validating the move before final placement, the game ensures that the Tetrominos stack up correctly.

function placeTetromino() {
  for (let row = 0; row < tetromino.matrix.length; row++) {
    for (let col = 0; col < tetromino.matrix[row].length; col++) {
      if (tetromino.matrix[row][col]) {

        // game over if piece has any part offscreen
        if (tetromino.row + row < 0) {
          return showGameOver();
        }

        playfield[tetromino.row + row][tetromino.col + col] = tetromino.name;
      }
    }
  }
}

Handling Line Clears:

A fundamental aspect of Tetris is clearing completed lines to make room for new Tetrominos. After placing a Tetromino, the game checks for any complete rows. If a row is complete, all the rows above it are shifted downward, effectively removing the completed row. This process continues until no complete rows remain. Clearing lines provides an opportunity for players to score points and continue playing.

for (let row = playfield.length - 1; row >= 0; ) {
    if (playfield[row].every(cell => !!cell)) {

      // drop every row above this one
      for (let r = row; r >= 0; r--) {
        for (let c = 0; c < playfield[r].length; c++) {
          playfield[r][c] = playfield[r-1][c];
        }
      }
    }
    else {
      row--;
    }
  }

  tetromino = getNextTetromino();

Game Over and Restart:

If the stack of Tetrominos reaches the top of the game grid, it's game over. The code includes a function to handle this condition. It stops the game loop, displays a "GAME OVER" message on the canvas, and sets a flag indicating that the game has ended. To restart the game, you can implement a feature that resets the playfield, score, and other necessary variables, allowing the player to start a new game.

function showGameOver() {
  cancelAnimationFrame(rAF);
  gameOver = true;

  context.fillStyle = 'black';
  context.globalAlpha = 0.75;
  context.fillRect(0, canvas.height / 2 - 30, canvas.width, 60);

  context.globalAlpha = 1;
  context.fillStyle = 'white';
  context.font = '36px monospace';
  context.textAlign = 'center';
  context.textBaseline = 'middle';
  context.fillText('GAME OVER!', canvas.width / 2, canvas.height / 2);
}

Adding Everything Up:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <title>Basic Tetris HTML Game</title>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <style>
  html, body {
    height: 100%;
    margin: 0;
  }

  body {
    background: black;
    display: flex;
    align-items: center;
    justify-content: center;
  }

  canvas {
    border: 1px solid white;
  }
  </style>
</head>
<body>

<canvas width="320" height="640" id="game"></canvas>
<script>


function getRandomInt(min, max) {
  min = Math.ceil(min);
  max = Math.floor(max);
  return Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1)) + min;
}

// genereate the next sequence in the game
function generateSequence() {
  const sequence = ['I', 'J', 'L', 'O', 'S', 'T', 'Z'];

  while (sequence.length) {
    const rand = getRandomInt(0, sequence.length - 1);
    const name = sequence.splice(rand, 1)[0];
    tetrominoSequence.push(name);
  }
}

// get the next tetromino in the sequence
function getNextTetromino() {
  if (tetrominoSequence.length === 0) {
    generateSequence();
  }

  const name = tetrominoSequence.pop();
  const matrix = tetrominos[name];

  // I and O start centered, all others start in left-middle
  const col = playfield[0].length / 2 - Math.ceil(matrix[0].length / 2);

  // I starts on row 21 (-1), all others start on row 22 (-2)
  const row = name === 'I' ? -1 : -2;

  return {
    name: name,      // name of the piece (L, O, etc.)
    matrix: matrix,  // the current rotation matrix
    row: row,        // current row (starts offscreen)
    col: col         // current col
  };
}

//rotates the tetromino, in the form of a matrix
function rotate(matrix) {
  const N = matrix.length - 1;
  const result = matrix.map((row, i) =>
    row.map((val, j) => matrix[N - j][i])
  );

  return result;
}

// check to see if the new matrix/row/col is valid
function isValidMove(matrix, cellRow, cellCol) {
  for (let row = 0; row < matrix.length; row++) {
    for (let col = 0; col < matrix[row].length; col++) {
      if (matrix[row][col] && (
          // outside the game bounds
          cellCol + col < 0 ||
          cellCol + col >= playfield[0].length ||
          cellRow + row >= playfield.length ||
          // collides with another piece
          playfield[cellRow + row][cellCol + col])
        ) {
        return false;
      }
    }
  }

  return true;
}

// place the tetromino on the playfield
function placeTetromino() {
  for (let row = 0; row < tetromino.matrix.length; row++) {
    for (let col = 0; col < tetromino.matrix[row].length; col++) {
      if (tetromino.matrix[row][col]) {

        // game over if piece has any part offscreen
        if (tetromino.row + row < 0) {
          return showGameOver();
        }

        playfield[tetromino.row + row][tetromino.col + col] = tetromino.name;
      }
    }
  }

  // check for line clears starting from the bottom and working our way up
  for (let row = playfield.length - 1; row >= 0; ) {
    if (playfield[row].every(cell => !!cell)) {

      // drop every row above this one
      for (let r = row; r >= 0; r--) {
        for (let c = 0; c < playfield[r].length; c++) {
          playfield[r][c] = playfield[r-1][c];
        }
      }
    }
    else {
      row--;
    }
  }

  tetromino = getNextTetromino();
}

// show the game over screen
function showGameOver() {
  cancelAnimationFrame(rAF);
  gameOver = true;

  context.fillStyle = 'black';
  context.globalAlpha = 0.75;
  context.fillRect(0, canvas.height / 2 - 30, canvas.width, 60);

  context.globalAlpha = 1;
  context.fillStyle = 'white';
  context.font = '36px monospace';
  context.textAlign = 'center';
  context.textBaseline = 'middle';
  context.fillText('GAME OVER!', canvas.width / 2, canvas.height / 2);
}

const canvas = document.getElementById('game');
const context = canvas.getContext('2d');
const grid = 32;
const tetrominoSequence = [];

// keep track of what is in every cell of the game using a 2d array
// tetris playfield is 10x20, with a few rows offscreen
const playfield = [];

// populate the empty state
for (let row = -2; row < 20; row++) {
  playfield[row] = [];

  for (let col = 0; col < 10; col++) {
    playfield[row][col] = 0;
  }
}

// different types of tetrominos shown in matrix form
const tetrominos = {
  'I': [
    [0,0,0,0],
    [1,1,1,1],
    [0,0,0,0],
    [0,0,0,0]
  ],
  'J': [
    [1,0,0],
    [1,1,1],
    [0,0,0],
  ],
  'L': [
    [0,0,1],
    [1,1,1],
    [0,0,0],
  ],
  'O': [
    [1,1],
    [1,1],
  ],
  'S': [
    [0,1,1],
    [1,1,0],
    [0,0,0],
  ],
  'Z': [
    [1,1,0],
    [0,1,1],
    [0,0,0],
  ],
  'T': [
    [0,1,0],
    [1,1,1],
    [0,0,0],
  ]
};

// color of each tetromino
const colors = {
  'I': 'cyan',
  'O': 'yellow',
  'T': 'purple',
  'S': 'green',
  'Z': 'red',
  'J': 'blue',
  'L': 'orange'
};

let count = 0;
let tetromino = getNextTetromino();
let rAF = null;  // keep track of the animation frame so we can cancel it
let gameOver = false;

// game loop
function loop() {
  rAF = requestAnimationFrame(loop);
  context.clearRect(0,0,canvas.width,canvas.height);

  // draw the playfield
  for (let row = 0; row < 20; row++) {
    for (let col = 0; col < 10; col++) {
      if (playfield[row][col]) {
        const name = playfield[row][col];
        context.fillStyle = colors[name];
        context.fillRect(col * grid, row * grid, grid-1, grid-1);
      }
    }
  }

  if (tetromino) {

    if (++count > 35) {
      tetromino.row++;
      count = 0;

      if (!isValidMove(tetromino.matrix, tetromino.row, tetromino.col)) {
        tetromino.row--;
        placeTetromino();
      }
    }

    context.fillStyle = colors[tetromino.name];

    for (let row = 0; row < tetromino.matrix.length; row++) {
      for (let col = 0; col < tetromino.matrix[row].length; col++) {
        if (tetromino.matrix[row][col]) {

          context.fillRect((tetromino.col + col) * grid, (tetromino.row + row) * grid, grid-1, grid-1);
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

// listen to keyboard events to move the active tetromino
document.addEventListener('keydown', function(e) {
  if (gameOver) return;

  // left and right arrow keys (move)
  if (e.which === 37 || e.which === 39) {
    const col = e.which === 37
      ? tetromino.col - 1
      : tetromino.col + 1;

    if (isValidMove(tetromino.matrix, tetromino.row, col)) {
      tetromino.col = col;
    }
  }

  // up arrow key (rotate)
  if (e.which === 38) {
    const matrix = rotate(tetromino.matrix);
    if (isValidMove(matrix, tetromino.row, tetromino.col)) {
      tetromino.matrix = matrix;
    }
  }

  // down arrow key (drop)
  if(e.which === 40) {
    const row = tetromino.row + 1;

    if (!isValidMove(tetromino.matrix, row, tetromino.col)) {
      tetromino.row = row - 1;

      placeTetromino();
      return;
    }

    tetromino.row = row;
  }
});

// start the game
rAF = requestAnimationFrame(loop);
</script>
</body>
</html>
Basic Tetris HTML Game

Conclusion:

Congratulations! You have successfully explored the provided code for a basic Tetris game implemented with JavaScript. By understanding the key components, such as the game canvas, Tetromino generation, user input handling, validation, line clearing, and game over conditions, you now have the foundation to expand and customize the game according to your preferences. Use this knowledge as a starting point to add features, improve gameplay, and create your own unique version of Tetris using JavaScript. Enjoy the process of game development and have fun!

Create Tetris Game using HTML and JavaScript [with demo]
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